Things You Need to Know Before Playing Online Casino Games

For regular internet users and gambling aficionados, online casino and casino is not a novel enterprise and with the significantly increasing number of online gamblers, agen sbobet casinos started to introduce new games and some have an even more improved variations of the already established casino games like poker, blackjacks, baccarat, slots, and other popular card games.

Online casinos have provided a convenient way of entertainment for casino enthusiasts while enjoying the comfort and privacy of their own homes. Similar with land based casinos; casinos also offer the same games but players here do not have to face real dealers or other players in order to play a particular game.

Rack up Your Credit Card Bill with Online Casinos

Online casino can either provide you with entertainment, income, or both depending on what type of player you are. Some more serious players play casino games with purpose of winning huge amounts of money while some just for sheer entertainment to while away the time.

If you fall on the first category, then you must prepare your credit card for more serious betting. But if you want to play games for fun, you can always choose the free play where you will not be required to use real money when betting on a particular game.

Finding the best casino with different range of online games that can offer higher probability for winning is important if you don’t want to lose your hard earned money at once. The most popular in online games where you can earn real dollars is the online poker. Depending on the variation, online poker seldom changes its typical rules and you can always play using your own strategy to get the better hands.

The advantage of playing online poker is that you will not experience the stress and pressures of the game like when you are on a land based casino where you have to sit face to face with your opponents. In this game, you will not likely be bluffed and winning the game lies entirely on your strategy.

Blackjack – Are the Odds against you in this Online Casino Game?

Another casino games favorite is blackjack. Here, you can disregard the basic rules of the game for you to win the match. Online blackjack is a tricky game and you have to pay careful attention on how the dealer plays his cards in order to get the hang of the game. Splits have less chances of winning when it comes to online blackjack so you have to avoid splitting your eights or aces and by being very attentive, there is likelihood that you will be able beat the house odds.

 

Online Casino – How to Land on the Right One

If you have experienced a scenario where in you logged on to your real money account in an online casino to find out that all your money or bankroll was emptied, bandarqq then you probably have landed on the seemingly right but actually a wrong place to play online casino games. Incident like this one is so unfortunate of course. But, aside from it is unfortunate, it also reveals a serious problem that most of the online casino players fall onto.

So before you go signing up for a real money account on any online casino that you think appears reputable, you might want to check first if it really is reputable enough to deal with. You may want to create some checklist first to finding and landing on a good online casino. This list should have security as the topmost item to check.

Expanding your checklist, one of the things to note is the registration process. Online casino that do come with security showcases a good identity check while insuring all of the information given will never be shared or is kept secret. Looking at the different registration procedures, some online casino sites will be asking for the name and account information which are only basic and gives you a username and a password to be used for accessing their services. While others only asks the player’s preferred username and email address and provides an admin generated password.

Though you might think that admin generated passwords are hard to guess due to its obscure combination of letters and numbers generation, not to mention the uppercase and lowercase, but it is more easier to hack compared to user generated ones. This is because it is derived from a set program which hackers can manipulate using advance know-how and some tools. So keep your accounts from hackers by generating passwords yourself. For better security, it would also be better to seek for online casino sites that provide user generated access codes.

Money security is another thing you will have to consider and always need to remember. This type of security is not really hard to get with legitimate online casinos as this is one of their guarantee to new and loyal players. They’re basically employing a tested money transfer methods to back up this guarantee. These tested money transfer methods include major credit cards and bank checks which allows an easier and much reliable way to transfer funds.

Reading and understanding the contract is also another way to ensuring that you are getting a good deal. By doing so, you will be exposed to a highly detailed contract indicating all the terms and conditions of use which only legitimate online casinos provide. It is also recommended to remember, if not all, a few of these terms and conditions as these can help you along the way. As to the checklist, casinos which don’t provide their terms and conditions or presenting it in an unprofessional/bogus manner should be escaped.

When all the legal concerns has been sorted out and you already have the list of prospect online casino sites that showcase high security, it is now time to compress your options. This time, let us add the look and feel factor as well as the game play, thus the gaming experience provided. Though highly optimized graphics are enticing and commands the player to play, it would also be nice if the casino games presented are highly direct and easy to use aside from the compelling graphics.

Of course, aside from the fun and excitement it brings, what’s the use of casinos if those don’t have payouts. Only consider those casinos with good payout schemes and have a wide variety of impressive bonuses. Be cautious though. Some sites are fraud offering dubious winnings for skimpy start ups. You’ll lose a lot of money than you want to earn when you are in them.

You can make use of online casino directories for an initial list of online casinos to consider. These provide legally accepted online casinos list that are done by experts and advanced players who have tried it themselves. Through this list you can also find reviews about the casinos with pros and cons to help you more and come up with a good decision. You may also want to learn players opinions promptly about your prospect casinos by asking them through forum threads. Remember to not take them as stated facts though but purely experience and opinion based.

 

The Story Behind Cotton Bags

Manufacture of cotton bags –

Cotton bags come in various types, but the process of manufacture is nearly the same for all of them. Baumwolltaschen bedrucken Cotton bags are made from natural cotton, and are therefore of no threat to the environment whatsoever. In some cases, cotton may be blended in with other materials such as jute, to provide the bags with more consistency and strength.

Once the basic material has been decided upon, the cotton cloth or the blended material is cut into pieces of the required shape and size. A stretching machine is then used to stretch these pieces in order to provide elasticity and tensile strength to the foundation of the bag. Once the required amount of stretching has been achieved, the stretched pieces are tailored together using a sewing machine.

When the final product needs to be of a certain color, the initially cut pieces are dyed accordingly. Also, in case a logo or a brand name has to be incorporated on to the bag, it can be stitched into the material or printed on it.

Advantages of using cotton bags –

These bags have several advantages over plastic bags. Let us look at some of the obvious ones.

• These bags are ecofriendly. They use environmentally friendly materials, and even on disposal, do not degenerate in a toxic manner. They can be recycled into several other useful products.

• The process of manufacturing cotton bags is also environment friendly. There is not much utilization of power, and as a result of this energy efficient method of manufacture, no unwanted wastage of resources occurs.

• These bags are friendlier on the human skin, as opposed to plastic bags that may cause rashes, itching, or even other deadlier infections.

• They are also economical, meaning that one can get the same amount of storage space with a cotton bag as with a plastic or leather bag, and at a much better price.

• Of course, there is one other huge advantage for bag lovers. Colors look much better and more vibrant in cotton. There are a wide variety of designs and colors to choose from.

 

The World’s Gambling Industry – From Land Casinos to Online Casinos

The online casino industry has grown rapidly over the course of the last ten years. bongde8899  While at the end of the 20th century there were only several dozen online casinos available to gamblers, over the last ten years their numbers have grown exponentially and today gamblers have a choice of over a thousand online casinos.

Land-based casinos, especially in the US, have always promoted themselves as fun-filled places where men, and later on also women, can gamble and have a good time and if they gamble enough their hotel rooms will be comped by the casino to encourage high rollers to come and wager at their establishment.

In Las Vegas, Nevada the casinos have realized, soon after their establishment that if they want to attract the men to gamble they need to provide entertainment to women. Free drinks were offered to the ladies waiting for their husbands or lovers who were at the tables playing.

When slot machines were introduced the game mainly drew bored women who had nothing better to do in the casino. The casino owners have quickly identified an additional source of income and started heavily promoting the game to women.

During the late 20th century Las Vegas got revamped from a mobsters-run town and turned more corporate. Huge casinos were built and offered non-gambling related entertainment to attract vacationing families and also started hosting large conventions which turned Las Vegas to the convention capital of the US.

Tourism flourished, but profits from gambling have slowly started declining and places like Macau have started competing with Las Vegas as the city whose profits most from gambling.

The introduction of online casinos in the late 90’s have served as another blow to places such as Las Vegas, Atlantic City and Monte Carlo. Suddenly people were given the option of gambling from the comfort of their own homes with a click of a button.

However in those years not everybody had a personal computer and those who did had to surf the internet using dial-up connections which were slow and patchy. This proved to be a problem and in retrospect we can see that these two factors caused a delay in the burst of online casinos.

Over the course of a few short years more and more people have gained access to personal computers, as mass production of personal computer have caused prices to decline, this corresponded with vast improvements in internet connections and the increase of internet surfing speed.

At this point it became much easier for the average Joe to own a computer and surf the net at a reasonable speed. Once this was possible online casinos could not be stopped. It became easier and quicker to download and install casino software, and later on with the development of Flash technology many casinos could offer players to play their favorite casino games directly from their web browsers without the need to download any heavy software on to their computers.

The rapid growth in the gaming industry of software providers and gambling brands has created a welcomed competition between the companies and have forced online casino to take a different approach from land-based casinos to marketing and promotion.

Online casinos were not able to offer their patrons free drinks and hotel rooms therefore they had to come up with other means of promotion in order to attract gamblers. This signaled the birth of online casino bonuses and merchandize promotions.

Online casino have started competing with land-based casinos and other online casinos by offering free cash bonuses to new players joining them. They have also developed players’ rewards programs that awarded top players with expensive branded merchandize.

 

The Baseball History

Many of the modern games that we enjoy today come from the 19th century despite there are historical reference of games that could be associated to them coming from ancient civilizations. agen sbobet However the history ob baseball can be situated in the mid-1800s when people who lived in the rural towns of the United States practiced a game named “rounders” that would be the direct antecedent of Baseball.

Rounders was also known as town ball, “one o ‘cat”, and base ball, similar to the actual game but with different regulations. It was until 1982, when then first baseball club was founded in New York, organized by Alexander Cartwright with the name of Knickerbockers Base Ball Club. The members of this club were called Knickerbockers and they drafted the 20 rules of the baseball game that were published in 1845, rules that are the foundation of the modern baseball game.

The first official baseball game between the Knickerbockers and another team was held on June 19, 1846 at the New York Club, today Hoboken, New Jersey. However, the first professional baseball team was the Cincinnati Red Stockings who begin to play in 1869. During the 19th century, baseball was mostly popular only in New York and its surrounding so it was commonly referred as the New York Game.

The turn of the century witnessed the establishment of the American Baseball League in Chicago on 1901. Later Ty Cobb was nicknamed the sensation of Georgia, after winning his first of nine consecutive batting titles in the American League setting a record in 1907 when the Tigers defeated the Athletics that year. By 1912, the first baseball stadiums were built; one was the Tigers Stadium and the other was the Fenway Park.

In the early decades of the 20th century George “Babe” Ruth was best known as the “Sultan of the home run” so, the New York Yankees paid $125,000 to hire him in 1920. Babe Ruth’s style was imitated by many hitters and the baseball become more popular than ever by this time.

In 1924, with the addition of first baseman Bill Terry, the Giants obtained a difficult victory over the Dodgers playing the World Series and soon baseball become popular in Japan until the present where every summer a large number of schools participate in the 4000 All Japan Baseball Tournament that takes place nearby Osaka.

The New York Yankees played in April 1936 its first competition game with one of the greatest baseball players of all times, Joe Di Maggio. The New York Yankees have won the World Series 23 times.

Baseball became “the King of the Sports” during 1940-1950 and the national Cuban sport until the present. Although many baseball players arose during the following decades, it was until the 1970s when Reggie Jackson became a baseball celebrity like Joe Di Maggio and Babe Ruth in their moment.

 

Play Slots Online On Five Reel Slots

Even after the introduction of the internet to the general market people could not play the games online. judi slot But with the presence of the new technology and the provision of the good internet speed now people can play different games online as well. In the past people only go to the casinos to play the slots but now they can play slots online on five reel slots by just sitting in their home even they can participate in different tournaments. Now there are different kinds of the slots machines some are made for the beginners and some are made for the intermediate and masters. Now it is up to your skills that at which category you fall and then you can select the game. If you know better enough about the slot games then you can play slots online on five reel slots. You can easily judge by the name that there are five rotating reels which can show the five numbers or you can also say the symbols which may match each other. If you get the five symbols or numbers which may match to each other then you can think that how interesting the game can be. Play slots online on five reel slots machine is really a great experience which you cannot get from the classic three reel slots. You can have the many better possibilities to win the jackpot and also different other bonuses.

Compare five reel slots machines and online slot machines

If you compare the original five reel slots machines to the machines which you get while playing slots online then you will find that these are not similar to those because it does not have the metal box with the handle because there are some kinds of the graphics are used online which can give you the impression of the slot machine. But if we talk about the game that is there any difference in the rules of the games and other things regarding to that then there is no difference between them. You will find the same rules and you have to follow the same steps to play slots online as you follow in the land based machines.

Five reel slots

When you play slots online on five reel slots online then you find that there are five reels which are rotating and show you the numbers after every spin. It is just a visual effect that you consider those reel rotating. But actually there is software which has the next set of the numbers and then when you click the button of the spin you get that number on your screen.

 

Playing Poker Online – What You Really Need to Know

Online Poker vs. Online Gambling:

Poker is a game of skill, and every decision you make is about maximizing your Expected Value or EV for short. idn poker The term “EV” will be used throughout this article and will be seen in two ways. A player can have +EV, which is positive Expected Value or – EV, which is negative Expected Value. Poker is not gambling and the following explains why.

Most gambling games have a negative EV for you, and a positive EV (5.49% in this case) for the casino. In the short run you could win, but in the long run, if you played typical gambling games 1000 times, the casino would always end up winning by about 5.49%. As you can see these types of gambling games are in favor of the house. Poker pits you against other players and not the house. In a full ring game (9 players) or shorthanded game (6 players), the goal is to make the best EV decisions against the many other players playing worse (making -EV decisions) than you.

A simple example would be if you were dealt KK before the flop came (preflop), which everyone knows is a good hand preflop. This hand has a high chance to win against all other hands preflop. If you played and raised “all in” with this hand against a player who played and called every all in, you would have a huge advantage as you will be a favorite every time, making it a +EV decision. This is an exaggerated example and playing one hand would not be the smartest idea. What you would do is play say the top 20% of hands because against a person who plays maybe 70% of their hands, you again, will be making a +EV decision every time you play with him. It’s likely that your starting hands will have a lot higher probability to win. This is just scraping the surface, and there is an EV attached to every decision and every situation. Many online poker sites provide starting hand charts for beginners to use, which would be the simplest way to improve your EV.

In addition, there is always variance and in the short term weaker players might get lucky, but that’s also what attracts them to come back and keep playing. In the long run, a good player who always makes +EV decisions will always end up a winner. This is why poker is not gambling but a game of skill and understanding how to exploit your opponent’s mistakes.

Is it safe to play online poker?

Absolutely, some sites have over 50,000 people playing at one time. Major sites like Full Tilt Poker run advertisements on the TV and the web and are even listed on the stock market. They allow you to play poker online for free or real money. Any negative publicity would affect their business so these sites often provide the best customer service. Keeping your password secure is your responsibility and if you do this, your money will be safe. Online poker sites have no incentive to cheat when dealing hands since they want to be extremely fair so you continue to play, which allows them to earn their income in the form of “rake.” This is a very small percent of the pot (usually less than 1%). In poker, you are playing against the other players, and not the house.

Obviously if the poker site seems shady, you have never heard of it, they don’t advertise on TV or the web and there aren’t members playing on a regular basis – you wouldn’t be depositing your money there!!! With that said, most of the major poker sites are very safe and reputable.

What are the best online poker rooms?
There are three major sites for playing online poker. Full Tilt Poker, Pokerstars and Party Poker have lots of traffic, play money tables, plenty of freeroll tournaments and have very good customer support. If you’re a beginner you should play at Full Tilt Poker or Pokerstars when you start. Other sites like Party Poker call you up after you sign up and require some form of id verification to activate your account. Some people may like this extra security, and can certainly go that route. Full Tilt Poker and Pokerstars do not require this. Overall, all three sites are incredibly safe and well known.

Many sites state “Deposit and get another $600!” Do they really double your deposit amount after depositing?

That depends on the site. Some sites give you a very small portion (around 10%) of your deposit instantly, but that is rare. What typically happens is you deposit $600, and then after you accumulate a certain amount of player points, they will give you the full $600. This is to ensure depositing players are also active. With online poker sites such as Full Tilt Poker these points are achieved very quickly.

Online sites will publish poker bonus codes which must be entered upon account creation. After that, the amount you earn depends on the time you spend playing and the stakes you play at. When a player reaches 400NL limit, which means 2 to 4 dollar blinds and have a good percent of wins, they can make up to 5K a month. This is of course if you treat playing like a job and dedicate several hours every day to playing. Ultimately job freedom and the lure of easy money that is just a click away, is what draws so many people to online poker.

 

The Baseball History

Many of the modern games that we enjoy today come from the 19th century despite there are historical reference of games that could be associated to them coming from ancient civilizations. sbobet However the history ob baseball can be situated in the mid-1800s when people who lived in the rural towns of the United States practiced a game named “rounders” that would be the direct antecedent of Baseball.

Rounders was also known as town ball, “one o ‘cat”, and base ball, similar to the actual game but with different regulations. It was until 1982, when then first baseball club was founded in New York, organized by Alexander Cartwright with the name of Knickerbockers Base Ball Club. The members of this club were called Knickerbockers and they drafted the 20 rules of the baseball game that were published in 1845, rules that are the foundation of the modern baseball game.

The first official baseball game between the Knickerbockers and another team was held on June 19, 1846 at the New York Club, today Hoboken, New Jersey. However, the first professional baseball team was the Cincinnati Red Stockings who begin to play in 1869. During the 19th century, baseball was mostly popular only in New York and its surrounding so it was commonly referred as the New York Game.

The turn of the century witnessed the establishment of the American Baseball League in Chicago on 1901. Later Ty Cobb was nicknamed the sensation of Georgia, after winning his first of nine consecutive batting titles in the American League setting a record in 1907 when the Tigers defeated the Athletics that year. By 1912, the first baseball stadiums were built; one was the Tigers Stadium and the other was the Fenway Park.

In the early decades of the 20th century George “Babe” Ruth was best known as the “Sultan of the home run” so, the New York Yankees paid $125,000 to hire him in 1920. Babe Ruth’s style was imitated by many hitters and the baseball become more popular than ever by this time.

In 1924, with the addition of first baseman Bill Terry, the Giants obtained a difficult victory over the Dodgers playing the World Series and soon baseball become popular in Japan until the present where every summer a large number of schools participate in the 4000 All Japan Baseball Tournament that takes place nearby Osaka.

The New York Yankees played in April 1936 its first competition game with one of the greatest baseball players of all times, Joe Di Maggio. The New York Yankees have won the World Series 23 times.

Baseball became “the King of the Sports” during 1940-1950 and the national Cuban sport until the present. Although many baseball players arose during the following decades, it was until the 1970s when Reggie Jackson became a baseball celebrity like Joe Di Maggio and Babe Ruth in their moment.

 

The Ultimate Guide to Becoming a Great Social Media Manager

A great social media manager is, as Ron Burgundy would say: smm panelThe balls“.

It’s an undisputed fact that every business needs to be active in social media. The ever-changing demands of the modern day consumer requires brands to think fast and adapt quickly in order to stay one step ahead.

The role of a social media manager has appealed to the mass generation of socially-active internet users. It’s hard not to. Especially when some might think that you can earn big bucks from posting Facebook updates. Hardly.

Being a social media manager is kind of like being a stand-up comedian. You have to quickly understand your audience and your engagement with them is vital. In order to accomplish this, you need to know if the audience is laughing at your jokes and you need to know this in real-time. If you can do this, then you have already won the crowd.

So, how do you become a social manager? More to the point, how do you become a great social manager?

The answer will be surprising to some. Firstly, you have to want it. Second, you have to love it. Third, you have to learn it. And even if you tick all these boxes, you should ask yourself: “Am I a social person?” If the answer is no, then becoming a social media manager is probably not for you…

So let’s take a look at the stats.

  • LinkedIn shows 57,910 results for “social media manager”
  • Social media has now overtaken porn as the number 1 activity on the web
  • 97% of all consumers search for local businesses online
  • 71% of consumers receiving a quick brand response on social media say they would likely recommend that brand to others
  • 93% of marketers use social media for business
  • In terms of difficulty of execution, nearly half (49%) of B2B marketers put social media marketing at the top, followed by content marketing (39%), SEO (26%) and mobile (25%)
  • 77% of B2B marketers use a blog as part of their content marketing mix
  • On average, 25% of marketing budgets are now spent on content development, delivery and promotion
  • 78% of small businesses attract new customers through social sites
  • When asked to rank their company’s social business maturity on a scale of 1 to 10, more than half of global business executives gave their company a score of 3 or below

But the statistic that is most relevant to this article is:

  • Just 12% of those using social marketing feel they actually use it effectively.

Being a social media manager brings with it some key benefits within a freelance setting. The most recognisable being the fact that you are your own boss. You make the decisions and answer to no one. You send the invoices and you set the policies. Heck, you could sit in your underpants all day on the computer if you wanted to.

The other is money. It is an in-demand role, but one that companies are still struggling to come to terms with. Some companies realise and understand the value social media could bring to their enterprise and are willing to invest heavily in robust social media campaigns. Being your own boss, you can decide how to set your costs and price accordingly.

Another attractive reason is the low barriers to entry. With low start-up costs and plenty of online resources (like this one!) to rapidly decrease the learning cure, anyone can launch a freelance social management business within a short space of time.

I’ll tell you my story shortly but first, let’s explore the essential skills you’ll need to become a great social media manager..

 

What Is a Game?

We probably all have a pretty good intuitive notion of what a game is. Id pro pkv games The general term “game” encompasses board games like chess and Monopoly, card games like poker and blackjack, casino games like roulette and slot machines, military war games, computer games, various kinds of play among children, and the list goes on. In academia we sometimes speak of game theory, in which multiple agents select strategies and tactics in order to maximize their gains within the framework of a well-defined set of game rules. When used in the context of console or computer-based entertainment, the word “game” usually conjures images of a three-dimensional virtual world featuring a humanoid, animal or vehicle as the main character under player control. (Or for the old geezers among us, perhaps it brings to mind images of two-dimensional classics like Pong, Pac-Man, or Donkey Kong.) In his excellent book, A Theory of Fun for Game Design, Raph Koster defines a game to be an interactive experience that provides the player with an increasingly challenging sequence of patterns which he or she learns and eventually masters. Koster’s asser-tion is that the activities of learning and mastering are at the heart of what we call “fun,” just as a joke becomes funny at the moment we “get it” by recognizing the pattern.

Video Games as Soft Real-Time Simulations

Most two- and three-dimensional video games are examples of what computer scientists would call soft real-time interactive agent-based computer simulations. Let’s break this phrase down in order to better understand what it means. In most video games, some subset of the real world -or an imaginary world- is modeled mathematically so that it can be manipulated by a computer. The model is an approximation to and a simplification of reality (even if it’s an imaginary reality), because it is clearly impractical to include every detail down to the level of atoms or quarks. Hence, the mathematical model is a simulation of the real or imagined game world. Approximation and simplification are two of the game developer’s most powerful tools. When used skillfully, even a greatly simplified model can sometimes be almost indistinguishable from reality and a lot more fun.

An agent-based simulation is one in which a number of distinct entities known as “agents” interact. This fits the description of most three-dimensional computer games very well, where the agents are vehicles, characters, fireballs, power dots and so on. Given the agent-based nature of most games, it should come as no surprise that most games nowadays are implemented in an object-oriented, or at least loosely object-based, programming language.

All interactive video games are temporal simulations, meaning that the vir- tual game world model is dynamic-the state of the game world changes over time as the game’s events and story unfold. A video game must also respond to unpredictable inputs from its human player(s)-thus interactive temporal simulations. Finally, most video games present their stories and respond to player input in real time, making them interactive real-time simulations.

One notable exception is in the category of turn-based games like computerized chess or non-real-time strategy games. But even these types of games usually provide the user with some form of real-time graphical user interface.

What Is a Game Engine?

The term “game engine” arose in the mid-1990s in reference to first-person shooter (FPS) games like the insanely popular Doom by id Software. Doom was architected with a reasonably well-defined separation between its core software components (such as the three-dimensional graphics rendering system, the collision detection system or the audio system) and the art assets, game worlds and rules of play that comprised the player’s gaming experience. The value of this separation became evident as developers began licensing games and retooling them into new products by creating new art, world layouts, weapons, characters, vehicles and game rules with only minimal changes to the “engine” software. This marked the birth of the “mod community”-a group of individual gamers and small independent studios that built new games by modifying existing games, using free toolkits pro- vided by the original developers. Towards the end of the 1990s, some games like Quake III Arena and Unreal were designed with reuse and “modding” in mind. Engines were made highly customizable via scripting languages like id’s Quake C, and engine licensing began to be a viable secondary revenue stream for the developers who created them. Today, game developers can license a game engine and reuse significant portions of its key software components in order to build games. While this practice still involves considerable investment in custom software engineering, it can be much more economical than developing all of the core engine components in-house. The line between a game and its engine is often blurry.

Some engines make a reasonably clear distinction, while others make almost no attempt to separate the two. In one game, the rendering code might “know” specifi-cally how to draw an orc. In another game, the rendering engine might provide general-purpose material and shading facilities, and “orc-ness” might be defined entirely in data. No studio makes a perfectly clear separation between the game and the engine, which is understandable considering that the definitions of these two components often shift as the game’s design solidifies.

Arguably a data-driven architecture is what differentiates a game engine from a piece of software that is a game but not an engine. When a game contains hard-coded logic or game rules, or employs special-case code to render specific types of game objects, it becomes difficult or impossible to reuse that software to make a different game. We should probably reserve the term “game engine” for software that is extensible and can be used as the foundation for many different games without major modification.

Clearly this is not a black-and-white distinction. We can think of a gamut of reusability onto which every engine falls. One would think that a game engine could be something akin to Apple QuickTime or Microsoft Windows Media Player-a general-purpose piece of software capable of playing virtually any game content imaginable. However, this ideal has not yet been achieved (and may never be). Most game engines are carefully crafted and fine-tuned to run a particular game on a particular hardware platform. And even the most general-purpose multiplatform engines are really only suitable for building games in one particular genre, such as first-person shooters or racing games. It’s safe to say that the more general-purpose a game engine or middleware component is, the less optimal it is for running a particular game on a particular platform.

This phenomenon occurs because designing any efficient piece of software invariably entails making trade-offs, and those trade-offs are based on assumptions about how the software will be used and/or about the target hardware on which it will run. For example, a rendering engine that was designed to handle intimate indoor environments probably won’t be very good at rendering vast outdoor environments. The indoor engine might use a binary space partitioning (BSP) tree or portal system to ensure that no geometry is drawn that is being occluded by walls or objects that are closer to the camera. The outdoor engine, on the other hand, might use a less-exact occlusion mechanism, or none at all, but it probably makes aggressive use of level-of-detail (LOD) techniques to ensure that distant objects are rendered with a minimum number of triangles, while using high-resolution triangle meshes for geome-try that is close to the camera.

The advent of ever-faster computer hardware and specialized graphics cards, along with ever-more-efficient rendering algorithms and data structures, is beginning to soften the differences between the graphics engines of different genres. It is now possible to use a first-person shooter engine to build a real-time strategy game, for example. However, the trade-off between generality and optimality still exists. A game can always be made more impressive by fine-tuning the engine to the specific requirements and constraints of a particular game and/or hardware platform.